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Fenomenos Colectivos

Contents

1 introduccion.

But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?But I must explain to you how all this mistaken idea of denouncing pleasure and praising pain was born and I will give you a complete account of the system, and expound the actual teachings of the great explorer of the truth, the master-builder of human happiness. No one rejects, dislikes, or avoids pleasure itself, because it is pleasure, but because those who do not know how to pursue pleasure rationally encounter consequences that are extremely painful. Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?

1.1 Cuerpos deformables.

1.2 Estados de agregación de la materia.

1.3 Métodos de descripción de sistemas macroscópicos.

1.4 Propiedades de las fronteras que limitan a los sistemas macroscópicos.

1.5 Variables macroscópicas, su medición y su clasificación.

1.6 Concepto de estado de equilibrio de un sistema macroscópico.

2 Equilibrio termodinámico de sistemas compuestos

2.1 Ecuación de estado térmica.

2.2 Concepto de temperatura

2.3 Funciones de respuesta mecánica.(coeficientes de dilatación, módulos, élasticos, suceptibilidades, etc).

2.4 Termómetros.

3 Estática en sistemas macroscópicos.

3.1 Deformaciones.

3.2 Principio de Pascal.

3.3 Principio de Arquímedes.

3.4 Fenómenos interfaciales.

 

4 Cambios de un estado de equilibrio a otro (Procesos).

4.1 Concepto de trabajo.

4.2 Concepto de calor.

4.3 Concepto de energía interna.

4.4 Primera Ley de la termodinámica.

4.5 Funciones de respuesta térmica (calores específicos).

5 Cambios “naturales” de un estado de equilibrio a otro.

5.1 Segunda Ley de la termodinámica.

5.2 Escala absoluta de temperatura.

5.3 Conceptos de reversibilidad e irreversibilidad.

5.4 Concepto de entropía.

6 Mecanismos presentes en la ruta al equilibrio.

6.1 Concepto de equilibrio local.

6.2 Fenómenos de transporte.

6.3 Principios de conservación.

7 Oscilaciones en sistemas macroscópicos.

7.1 Ecuación de onda.

7.2 Características de una onda.

7.3 Fenómenos ondulatorios.

7.4 Interacción onda – sistema.

8 Introducción a la descripción microscópica de un sistema macroscópico.

8.1 Conceptos básicos de probabilidad.

8.2 Concepto de distribución estadística.

8.3 Distribución de velocidades de Maxwell-Boltzmann.

8.4 Cálculo de la presión de una colección de partículas libres.

8.5 Cálculo de la energía interna de una colección de partículas libres.

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